0.前言


http://www.nta-monitor.com/wiki/index.php/Arp-scan_User_Guide

自己先挖一个坑,作为长期翻译项目填

接触到这个是因为把树莓派用网线直连电脑时,用

$ sudo arp-scan -l -I enp0s25
Interface: enp0s25, datalink type: EN10MB (Ethernet)
Starting arp-scan 1.9 with 65536 hosts (http://www.nta-monitor.com/tools/arp-scan/)
16x.25x.9x.10x	bx:2x:ex:5x:4x:cx	Raspberry Pi Foundation

查询到IP地址才能SSH过去。

进度:

-l -I

1.环境与版本


$ uname -a
Linux edison 4.13.12-1-ARCH #1 SMP PREEMPT Wed Nov 8 11:54:06 CET 2017 x86_64 GNU/Linux
$ arp-scan --version
arp-scan 1.9

Copyright (C) 2005-2013 Roy Hills, NTA Monitor Ltd.
arp-scan comes with NO WARRANTY to the extent permitted by law.
You may redistribute copies of arp-scan under the terms of the GNU
General Public License.
For more information about these matters, see the file named COPYING.

libpcap version 1.8.1
$Id$
$Id$
$Id$
$Id$
$Id$

2.参数

arp-scan -help          
Usage: arp-scan [options] [hosts...]
#用法:arp-scan [选项] [hosts...]
Target hosts must be specified on the command line unless the --file option is
given, in which case the targets are read from the specified file instead, or
the --localnet option is used, in which case the targets are generated from
the network interface IP address and netmask.

You will need to be root, or arp-scan must be SUID root, in order to run
arp-scan, because the functions that it uses to read and write packets
require root privilege.

The target hosts can be specified as IP addresses or hostnames. You can also
specify the target as IPnetwork/bits (e.g. 192.168.1.0/24) to specify all hosts
in the given network (network and broadcast addresses included), or
IPstart-IPend (e.g. 192.168.1.3-192.168.1.27) to specify all hosts in the
inclusive range, or IPnetwork:NetMask (e.g. 192.168.1.0:255.255.255.0) to
specify all hosts in the given network and mask.

These different options for specifying target hosts may be used both on the
command line, and also in the file specified with the --file option.

Options:

Note: where an option takes a value, that value is specified as a letter in
angle brackets. The letter indicates the type of data that is expected:

<s> A character string, e.g. --file=hostlist.txt.

<i> An integer, which can be specified as a decimal number or as a hexadecimal
    number if preceeded with 0x, e.g. --arppro=2048 or --arpro=0x0800.

<f> A floating point decimal number, e.g. --backoff=1.5.

<m> An Ethernet MAC address, which can be specified either in the format
    01:23:45:67:89:ab, or as 01-23-45-67-89-ab. The alphabetic hex characters
    may be either upper or lower case. E.g. --arpsha=01:23:45:67:89:ab.

<a> An IPv4 address, e.g. --arpspa=10.0.0.1

<h> Binary data specified as a hexadecimal string, which should not
    include a leading 0x. The alphabetic hex characters may be either
    upper or lower case. E.g. --padding=aaaaaaaaaaaa

<x> Something else. See the description of the option for details.

--help or -h		Display this usage message and exit.

--file=<s> or -f <s>	Read hostnames or addresses from the specified file
			instead of from the command line. One name or IP
			address per line. Use "-" for standard input.

--localnet or -l	Generate addresses from network interface configuration.
			Use the network interface IP address and network mask
			to generate the list of target host addresses.
			The list will include the network and broadcast
			addresses, so an interface address of 10.0.0.1 with
			netmask 255.255.255.0 would generate 256 target
			hosts from 10.0.0.0 to 10.0.0.255 inclusive.
			If you use this option, you cannot specify the --file
			option or specify any target hosts on the command line.
			The interface specifications are taken from the
			interface that arp-scan will use, which can be
			changed with the --interface option.
/*
--localnet or -l   
从网络接口的配置生成一系列地址。使用网络接口的IP地址和子网掩码来生成目标主机的地址列表,这份地址列表将包括所处网络和广播地址,这意味着,如果地址是10.0.0.1、掩码为255.255.255.0的话将会生成256个目标主机(也就是从10.0.0.0到10.0.0.255内)。如果你用了这个参数就不能用--file参数,也不能指定任意的目标主机。arp-scan将要使用的接口上的接口规格就通过--interface选项来指定(我的理解是就是向要扫描的网口用另一个参数也就是--interface来指定)。
*/
--retry=<i> or -r <i>	Set total number of attempts per host to <i>,
			default=2.

--timeout=<i> or -t <i>	Set initial per host timeout to <i> ms, default=500.
			This timeout is for the first packet sent to each host.
			subsequent timeouts are multiplied by the backoff
			factor which is set with --backoff.

--interval=<x> or -i <x> Set minimum packet interval to <x>.
			This controls the outgoing bandwidth usage by limiting
			the rate at which packets can be sent. The packet
			interval will be no smaller than this number.
			If you want to use up to a given bandwidth, then it is
			easier to use the --bandwidth option instead.
			The interval specified is in milliseconds by default,
			or in microseconds if "u" is appended to the value.

--bandwidth=<x> or -B <x> Set desired outbound bandwidth to <x>, default=256000.
			The value is in bits per second by default. If you
			append "K" to the value, then the units are kilobits
			per sec; and if you append "M" to the value, the
			units are megabits per second.
			The "K" and "M" suffixes represent the decimal, not
			binary, multiples. So 64K is 64000, not 65536.
			You cannot specify both --interval and --bandwidth
			because they are just different ways to change the
			same underlying parameter.

--backoff=<f> or -b <f>	Set timeout backoff factor to <f>, default=1.50.
			The per-host timeout is multiplied by this factor
			after each timeout. So, if the number of retries
			is 3, the initial per-host timeout is 500ms and the
			backoff factor is 1.5, then the first timeout will be
			500ms, the second 750ms and the third 1125ms.

--verbose or -v		Display verbose progress messages.
			Use more than once for greater effect:
			1 - Display the network address and mask used when the
			    --localnet option is specified, display any
			    nonzero packet padding, display packets received
			    from unknown hosts, and show when each pass through
			    the list completes.
			2 - Show each packet sent and received, when entries
			    are removed from the list, the pcap filter string,
			    and counts of MAC/Vendor mapping entries.
			3 - Display the host list before scanning starts.

--version or -V		Display program version and exit.

--random or -R		Randomise the host list.
			This option randomises the order of the hosts in the
			host list, so the ARP packets are sent to the hosts in
			a random order. It uses the Knuth shuffle algorithm.

--numeric or -N		IP addresses only, no hostnames.
			With this option, all hosts must be specified as
			IP addresses. Hostnames are not permitted. No DNS
			lookups will be performed.

--snap=<i> or -n <i>	Set the pcap snap length to <i>. Default=64.
			This specifies the frame capture length. This
			length includes the data-link header.
			The default is normally sufficient.

--interface=<s> or -I <s> Use network interface <s>.
			If this option is not specified, arp-scan will search
			the system interface list for the lowest numbered,
			configured up interface (excluding loopback).
			The interface specified must support ARP.
/*
--interface= or -I
如果不指定这个选项,arp-scan会指定系统里接口列表中编号最小的那个接口来进行工作,并且会配置这个接口(包括回环)(不理解这个配置接口是什么含义)。当然了,所指定的接口必须支持ARP。
*/

--quiet or -q		Only display minimal output.
			If this option is specified, then only the minimum
			information is displayed. With this option, the
			OUI files are not used.

--ignoredups or -g	Don't display duplicate packets.
			By default, duplicate packets are displayed and are
			flagged with "(DUP: n)".

--ouifile=<s> or -O <s>	Use IEEE Ethernet OUI to vendor mapping file <s>.
			If this option is not specified, the default filename
			is ieee-oui.txt in the current directory. If that is
			not found, then the file
			/usr/share/arp-scan/ieee-oui.txt is used.

--iabfile=<s> or -O <s>	Use IEEE Ethernet IAB to vendor mapping file <s>.
			If this option is not specified, the default filename
			is ieee-iab.txt in the current directory. If that is
			not found, then the file
			/usr/share/arp-scan/ieee-iab.txt is used.

--macfile=<s> or -O <s>	Use custom Ethernet MAC to vendor mapping file <s>.
			If this option is not specified, the default filename
			is mac-vendor.txt in the current directory. If that is
			not found, then the file
			/usr/share/arp-scan/mac-vendor.txt is used.

--srcaddr=<m> or -S <m> Set the source Ethernet MAC address to <m>.
			This sets the 48-bit hardware address in the Ethernet
			frame header for outgoing ARP packets. It does not
			change the hardware address in the ARP packet, see
			--arpsha for details on how to change that address.
			The default is the Ethernet address of the outgoing
			interface.

--destaddr=<m> or -T <m> Send the packets to Ethernet MAC address <m>
			This sets the 48-bit destination address in the
			Ethernet frame header.
			The default is the broadcast address ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.
			Most operating systems will also respond if the ARP
			request is sent to their MAC address, or to a
			multicast address that they are listening on.

--arpsha=<m> or -u <m>	Use <m> as the ARP source Ethernet address
			This sets the 48-bit ar$sha field in the ARP packet
			It does not change the hardware address in the frame
			header, see --srcaddr for details on how to change
			that address. The default is the Ethernet address of
			the outgoing interface.

--arptha=<m> or -w <m>	Use <m> as the ARP target Ethernet address
			This sets the 48-bit ar$tha field in the ARP packet
			The default is zero, because this field is not used
			for ARP request packets.

--prototype=<i> or -y <i> Set the Ethernet protocol type to <i>, default=0x0806.
			This sets the 16-bit protocol type field in the
			Ethernet frame header.
			Setting this to a non-default value will result in the
			packet being ignored by the target, or sent to the
			wrong protocol stack.

--arphrd=<i> or -H <i>	Use <i> for the ARP hardware type, default=1.
			This sets the 16-bit ar$hrd field in the ARP packet.
			The normal value is 1 (ARPHRD_ETHER). Most, but not
			all, operating systems will also respond to 6
			(ARPHRD_IEEE802). A few systems respond to any value.

--arppro=<i> or -p <i>	Use <i> for the ARP protocol type, default=0x0800.
			This sets the 16-bit ar$pro field in the ARP packet.
			Most operating systems only respond to 0x0800 (IPv4)
			but some will respond to other values as well.

--arphln=<i> or -a <i>	Set the hardware address length to <i>, default=6.
			This sets the 8-bit ar$hln field in the ARP packet.
			It sets the claimed length of the hardware address
			in the ARP packet. Setting it to any value other than
			the default will make the packet non RFC compliant.
			Some operating systems may still respond to it though.
			Note that the actual lengths of the ar$sha and ar$tha
			fields in the ARP packet are not changed by this
			option; it only changes the ar$hln field.

--arppln=<i> or -P <i>	Set the protocol address length to <i>, default=4.
			This sets the 8-bit ar$pln field in the ARP packet.
			It sets the claimed length of the protocol address
			in the ARP packet. Setting it to any value other than
			the default will make the packet non RFC compliant.
			Some operating systems may still respond to it though.
			Note that the actual lengths of the ar$spa and ar$tpa
			fields in the ARP packet are not changed by this
			option; it only changes the ar$pln field.

--arpop=<i> or -o <i>	Use <i> for the ARP operation, default=1.
			This sets the 16-bit ar$op field in the ARP packet.
			Most operating systems will only respond to the value 1
			(ARPOP_REQUEST). However, some systems will respond
			to other values as well.

--arpspa=<a> or -s <a>	Use <a> as the source IP address.
			The address should be specified in dotted quad format;
			or the literal string "dest", which sets the source
			address to be the same as the target host address.
			This sets the 32-bit ar$spa field in the ARP packet.
			Some operating systems check this, and will only
			respond if the source address is within the network
			of the receiving interface. Others don't care, and
			will respond to any source address.
			By default, the outgoing interface address is used.

			WARNING: Setting ar$spa to the destination IP address
			can disrupt some operating systems, as they assume
			there is an IP address clash if they receive an ARP
			request for their own address.

--padding=<h> or -A <h>	Specify padding after packet data.
			Set the padding data to hex value <h>. This data is
			appended to the end of the ARP packet, after the data.
			Most, if not all, operating systems will ignore any
			padding. The default is no padding, although the
			Ethernet driver on the sending system may pad the
			packet to the minimum Ethernet frame length.

--llc or -L		Use RFC 1042 LLC framing with SNAP.
			This option causes the outgoing ARP packets to use
			IEEE 802.2 framing with a SNAP header as described
			in RFC 1042. The default is to use Ethernet-II
			framing.
			arp-scan will decode and display received ARP packets
			in either Ethernet-II or IEEE 802.2 formats
			irrespective of this option.

--vlan=<i> or -Q <i>	Use 802.1Q tagging with VLAN id <i>.
			This option causes the outgoing ARP packets to use
			802.1Q VLAN tagging with a VLAN ID of <i>, which should
			be in the range 0 to 4095 inclusive.
			arp-scan will always decode and display received ARP
			packets in 802.1Q format irrespective of this option.

--pcapsavefile=<s> or -W <s>	Write received packets to pcap savefile <s>.
			This option causes received ARP responses to be written
			to the specified pcap savefile as well as being decoded
			and displayed. This savefile can be analysed with
			programs that understand the pcap file format, such as
			"tcpdump" and "wireshark".

--rtt or -D		Display the packet round-trip time.

Report bugs or send suggestions to arp-scan@nta-monitor.com
See the arp-scan homepage at http://www.nta-monitor.com/tools/arp-scan/